DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The low pressure stage of the fuel pump draws fuel from the swirl pot and pumps it into the fuel filter. The high
pressure stage of the fuel pump draws the fuel from the fuel filter and pumps it along the fuel feed pipe to the
The fuel enters the cylinder head through a connection on the fuel pressure regulator housing and supplies each
injector with pressurised fuel. The fuel pressure regulator maintains the fuel pressure at the injectors at 4 bar (58
lbf.in) by returning excess fuel back to the fuel filter. The returned fuel passes through the fuel cooler in the engine
compartment before it passes to the fuel filter.
When the engine is running, each injector is operated by an overhead camshaft which depresses a push rod in
each injector at a timed interval. When the cam has depressed the push rod and the push rod is returning to its
extended position, fuel is drawn from the fuel supply drilling in the injector.
When the ECM determines that injection is required, the ECM transmits an electrical pulse which energises the
fast acting solenoid, closing the spill valve on the injector and locking fuel in the injector body. As the cam begins
to depress the push rod, the fuel in the injector is rapidly pressurised. When the pressure exceeds the nozzle
spring pressure, the nozzle opens and injects fuel at very high pressure into the cylinder.
When the ECM determines that the injection period should end, the solenoid is rapidly de-energised, opening the
spill valve on the injector and allowing fuel to pass into the return circuit.
The ECM controls the injection timing by altering the time at which the solenoid is energised, and the injection
period by controlling the period for which the solenoid is energised.